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Intellectual Property law grants owners exclusive rights over creations of the mind, both artistic and commercial.
Anti-commons refers to the tragedy of the anti-commons, which describes how people underuse scarce resources because too many owners can block each other (with patents).
Vast and diverse ownership is an important aspect of a healthy economy, but creates significant problems for follow-on contributors in the public sector.
Intellectual property rights hamper innovation and the initial impact of a patent grant on scientific citations is negative.
Citation rates suffer a 24% decline the year of a patent grant.
Among the 4,270 patents on human genes, at least 35% are associated with gene patent-paper pairs.
Private sector patents have more of a negative impact on forward citations, a decline of 6% to 9% compared to 0% to 3% for academic papers.
There is significant evidence that the private sector has been particularly aggressive with intellectual property law enforcement targeted at other firms and public institutio