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Intellectual Property law grants owners exclusive rights over creations of the mind, both artistic and commercial.
Anti-commons refers to the tragedy of the anti-commons, which describes how people underuse scarce resources because too many owners can block each other (with patents).
Intellectual property rights hamper innovation and the initial impact of a patent grant on scientific citations is negative.
Citation rates suffer a 24% decline the year of a patent grant.
Among the 4,270 patents on human genes, at least 35% are associated with gene patent-paper pairs.
Private sector patents have more of a negative impact on forward citations, a decline of 6% to 9% compared to 0% to 3% for academic papers.
There is significant evidence that the private sector has been particularly aggressive with intellectual property law enforcement targeted at other firms and public institutio
Vast and diverse ownership is an important aspect of a healthy economy, but creates significant problems for follow-on contributors in the public sector.