Standards and Infrastructure for Innovation Data Exchange

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This article,, published in Science proposes a distributed data infrastructure and exchange standards for the Science of Science and Innovation community.

Standards and Infrastructure for Innovation Data Exchange

  1. Laurel L. Haak1,*,
  2. David Baker2,
  3. Donna K. Ginther3,
  4. Gregg J. Gordon4,
  5. Matthew A. Probus5,
  6. Nirmala Kannankutty6,
  7. Bruce A. Weinberg7,8

+ Author Affiliations

1.    1ORCID, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA.
2.    2CASRAI, Ottawa, Ontario K1R 7X6, Canada.
3.    3University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA.
4.    4SSRN, Rochester, NY 14618, USA.
5.    5Thomson Reuters Intellectual Property and Science, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.
6.    6NCSES, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA 20850, USA.
7.    7Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
8.    8National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  1. *Author for correspondence. E-mail:

Economic growth relies in part on efficient advancement and application of research and development (R&D) knowledge. This requires access to data about science—in particular, R&D inputs and outputs such as grants, patents, publications, and data sets, to support an understanding of how R&D information is produced and what affects its availability. But there is a cacophony of R&D-related data across countries, disciplines, data providers, and sectors. Burdened with data that are inconsistently specified, researchers and policy-makers have few incentives or mechanisms to share or interlink cleaned data sets. Access to these data is limited by a patchwork of laws, regulations, and practices that are unevenly applied and interpreted (1). A Web-based infrastructure for data sharing and analysis could help. Data exchange standards are a first step. We describe administrative and technical demands and opportunities to meet them.


Science 12 October 2012:
Vol. 338 no. 6104 pp. 196-197
DOI: 10.1126/science.1221840